source: fig. 2.13 & 2.14 from Fernandez’s Material Architecture ch. 2 pgs 44-70.
“When one considers the compounding effects of the long life of buildings (and infrastructure) and their large and material intensive bulk, it is not surprising that construction has resulted in sprawling landscapes of assembled mineral resources. The extraordinary efforts of previous societies to mine and process the mineral wealth of the world have left us with a huge bounty of material embodied within the structure, skin, and internals of our buildlings.”